Encouraging Civil Behavior in Large Classes
Essays on Teaching Excellence
Vol. 15, No. 8, 2003-2004
Mary Deane Sorcinelli, University of Massachusetts Amherst
For two years I was part of a bi-monthly, cross-disciplinary seminar with twenty tenured professors who taught large, lower-division lectures ranging in size from 100 to 500 students. Our goal, supported by a grant from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, was to improve general education courses at our University. Early on in our meetings, a desire to share strategies for managing student behavior in large lecture classes surfaced. This topic appears to be a shared concern among college teachers on many campuses, as demonstrated by the increasing advice in higher education publications on "troublesome behaviors," "incivility," and "misconduct." (Amada, 1999; Richardson, 1999). This essay looks specifically at issues of civility in the large lecture classroom, and offers some preventative measures and practical advice.
Creating a Constructive Classroom Climate
When disruptive behavior occurs in our classes, we can be sure of two things. First, we must do something. The longer inappropriate behavior continues, the more acceptable it becomes and the more difficult it is to stop. Second, it is easier to prevent disruptive behaviors than to deal with them after the fact. Establishing a positive climate and expectations for large class learning can avert many problems.The following are four groups of specific strategies that teachers can use to guide their efforts in creating constructive large class environments (Sorcinelli, 2002).
Define Expectations at the Outset. The importance of establishing norms and setting expectations for a class at the outset cannot be overstated. A carefully planned first meeting, a clear syllabus, and simply relating to students on a personal basis can help establish a positive atmosphere and avoid problems that may arise from confusion about guidelines for classroom behavior.
Decrease Anonymity. When students have personal relationships with the teacher as well as their peers, civility can come more easily. The following are some practical ways to reduce anonymity in large classes.
Encourage Active Learning. Studies suggest that active learning methods engage students with content in ways that develop positive relationships among students as well as competencies and critical thinking skills—rather than solely the acquisition of knowledge. A number of active learning strategies are particularly suited to large classes (Sutherland & Bonwell, 1996; Carbone, 1998; Stanley & Porter, 2002).
Examine Your Behavior and Seek Feedback from Students. When faced with inappropriate deportment, examine your own behavior. Surveys of students' "pet peeves about teaching" reveal that many are concerned about lecturing behaviorsÂ—including poor organization, visuals, pacing, and use of class time. Other complaints include talking down to students, being unhelpful or unapproachable, and employing confusing testing and grading practices (Perlman & McCann, 1998).
Some Solutions for Dealing with Misbehavior
Clearly, prevention is preferable to remediation. However, instructors may still run into some students or classes that present problems. The suggestions below address behaviors that faculty report as most irritating and troublesome. There are several excellent resources to consult when confronted with more serious breaches of classroom conduct, for example, cheating, harassment, drug or alcohol abuse (Amada, 1999; McKeachie, 1999; Richardson, 1999).
Talking and Inattention
Arriving Late and Leaving Early
Challenges to Authority. At some point in large classes, many teachers will face a student who is resentful, hostile, or challenging. The following are a few suggestions for gaining the cooperation of an oppositional student.
For most instructors, teaching the large lecture is one of the most challenging of classroom assignments. Although we have expertise in our content areas, we often have little training to manage such large numbers of students. Paramount to establishing a positive large class environment and deterring disruptive behavior is to let students know your expectations from the outset and hold them to those expectations. Perhaps most importantly, as instructors we need to consider our own behavior as well as that of our students. An honest attempt to understand how our classroom deportment might contribute to a difficult situation may help to reduce incivilities in our classrooms.
Amada, G. (1999). Coping with misconduct in the college classroom: A practical model. Asheville, NC: College Administration Publications.
Carbone, E. (1998). Teaching large classes: Tools and strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
McKeachie, W.J. (1999). Teaching Tips (10th ed.). Lexington, MA: Heath.
Perlman, B., & McCann, L.I. (1998). Students' pet peeves about teaching. Teaching of Psychology , 25, 201-02.
Richardson, S. (Ed.) (1999 ). Promoting Civility: A Teaching Challenge. New Directions for Teaching and Learnin g, no.77. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sorcinelli, M.D. (2002). Promoting civility in large classes. In Stanley, C.A., & Porter, M.E. (Eds.) Engaging Large Classes (pp. 44-57). Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.
Stanley, C.A., & Porter, M.E. (Eds.) (2002). Engaging Large Classes . Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.
Sutherland, T.E., & Bonwell, C.C. (Eds.) (1996 ). Using active learning in large classes: A range of options for faculty. New Directions for Teaching and Learning , no. 67. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Mary Deane Sorcinelli (Ed.D., University of Massachusetts Amherst) is Associate Provost and Director, Center for Teaching at University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
This publication is part of an 8-part series of essays originally published by The Professional & Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. For more information about the POD Network, link to http://www.podnetwork.org .